Ayat 217 Surah Al-Baqarah sering digunakan oleh pengkaji Barat dalam usaha mereka untuk memburuk Islam dalam hal berkaitan peperangan. Ayat ini berkait dengan peristiwa di Nakhlah yang dipimpin oleh Abdullah bin Jahsy. Catatan ringkas mengenai ayat tersebut adalah seperti berikut (link);
Diketengahkan oleh Ibnu Jarir dan Ibnu Abu Hatim serta Thabrani dalam Al-Kabir dan Baihaqi dalam Sunannya dari Jundub bin Abdullah bahwa Rasulullah saw. mengirim sepasukan tentara yang dikepalai oleh Abdullah bin Jahsy. Mereka dihadang oleh Ibnu Hadhrami yang mereka bunuh dan mereka tidak tahu apakah hari itu sudah termasuk bulan Rajab atau masih dalam bulan Jumadilakhir. Maka kata orang-orang musyrik kepada kaum muslimin, “Kalian melakukan pembunuhan di bulan suci.” Maka Allah swt. pun menurunkan, “Mereka bertanya kepadamu tentang berperang pada bulan suci…” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah 217)
Untuk memahami apa yang berlaku di sebalik peristiwa tersebut (asbabun nuzul ayat 217) elok kita baca petikan Kitab Sirah oleh Mubarakfuri mengenai ayat tersebut (link);
The Platoon of Nakhlah. It took place in Rajab 2 A.H., i.e. January 624 A.H. The Messenger of Allah [pbuh] despatched ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh Asadi to Nakhlah at the head of 12 Emigrants with six camels. ‘Abdullah was given a letter by the Prophet [pbuh] but was instructed to read it only after two days. He followed the instructions and discovered that he was asked to go on to a place called Nakhlah standing between Makkah and At-Ta’if, intercept a caravan for Quraish and collect news about their intentions. He disclosed the contents of the letters to his fellows who blindly obeyed the orders. At Nakhlah, the caravan passed carrying loads of raisins (dried grapes), food stuff and other commodities. Notable polytheists were also there such as ‘Amr bin Al-Hadrami, ‘Uthman and Naufal, sons of ‘Abdullah bin Al-Mugheerah and others… The Muslims held consultations among themselves with respect to fighting them taking into account Rajab which was a sacred month (during which, along with Dhul Hijja, Dhul Qa‘da and Muharram, war activities were suspended as was the custom in Arabia then). At last they agreed to engage with them in fighting. ‘Amr bin Al-Hadrami was shot dead by an arrow, ‘Uthman and Al-Hakam were captured whereas Naufal escaped. They came back with the booty and the two prisoners. They set aside one-fifth of the booty assigned to Allah and His Messenger, and took the rest. The Messenger disapproved of that act and suspended any action as regards the camels and the two captives on account of the prohibited months already mentioned. The polytheists, on their part, exploited this golden opportunity to calumniate the Muslims and accuse them of violating what is Divinely inviolable. This idle talk brought about a painful headache to Muhammad’s Companions, until at last they were relieved when the Revelation came down giving a decisive answer and stating quite explicitly that the behaviour of the polytheists in the whole process was much more heinous and far more serious than the act of the Muslims:
“They ask you concerning fighting in the sacred months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar). Say, ‘Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid-Al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing.” [Al-Qur’an 2:217]
The Words of Allah were quite clear and said that the tumult created by the polytheists was groundless. The sacred inviolable sanctities had been repeatedly violated in the long process of fighting Islam and persecuting its adherents. The wealth of the Muslims as well as their homes had already been violated and their Prophet [pbuh] had been the target of repeated attempts on his life. In short, that sort of propaganda could deservedly be described as impudence and prostitution. This has been a resume of pre-Badr platoons and invasions. None of them witnessed any sort of looting property or killing people except when the polytheists had committed such crimes under the leadership of Karz bin Jabir Al-Fahri. It was, in fact, the polytheists who had initiated such acts. No wonder, for such ill-behaviour is immanent in their natural disposition.
Shortly afterwards, the two captives were released and blood money was given to the killed man’s father.
After this event, Quraish began to realize the real danger that Madinah could present with. They came to know that Madinah had always been on the alert, watching closely their commercial caravans. It was then common knowledge to them that the Muslims in their new abode could span and extend their military activities over an area of 300 miles. and bring it under full control. However, the new situation borne in mind, the Makkans could not be deterred and were too obstinate to come to terms with the new rising power of Islam. They were determined to bring their fall by their own hands and with this recklessness they precipitated the great battle of Badr.
Masjid Ammar, Wan Chai Business District, Hong Kong
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